Title: Review of Beam forming Techniques in Smart Antenna
Authors: T. Sunitha Biji and A.Mary Joy Kinol
Abstract: Smart antenna is now broadly used in communication systems due to its enormous advantages. In order to increase the concert of smart antenna operation, efficient design of beamforming pattern is essential based on the subjected antenna parameters in order to transform the beam pattern of the antenna for the specified angle. Various beamforming algorithms like Least Mean Square (LMS) Algorithm, Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) Algorithm, Sign Least Mean Square (SLMS) Algorithm, Constrained Stability Least Mean Square (CSLMS) Algorithm, Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) Algorithm, and Recursive Least Square (RLS) Algorithm are studied. Two factors are very imperative for practical applications to realize desired directions of user and impede with specified beam width and side lobe level. The performances of algorithms are compared based on accuracy of beam generation, side lobe level for different SNR value.
Title: Reshaped Patch Antenna design for 60 GHz WPAN Application with End-Fire Radiation
Authors: Ribhu Abhusan Panda and Debasis Mishra
Abstract: In this paper the modification of the patch has been done on the substrate for 60 GHz application. The semi-circular patch has been merged with the triangular patch. The substrate is of dimension 30?30 mm .FR4 epoxy material has been chosen for the substrate and copper is assigned to both patch and ground. The semi-circular patch has the radius equal to the wavelength to the corresponding frequency and the triangular patch has the height equal same wavelength. The proposed antenna has been designed for 60 GHz WPAN. The simulation has been carried out by HFSS and CST software and finally a comparison has been made taking the S11, VSWR, Antenna Gain , Directivity and radiation efficiency into account.
Title: Agriculture Drone Optimal Scan Algorithm
Authors: B.V. Rama Krishna
Abstract: The Agriculture Drone collects information from fields by using sensor technology. In this paper a neighbourhood based grid scan algorithm proposed to cover the crop fields by ADM (Agriculture Drone Model) developed in previous work of author. The proposed Optimal Scan Algorithm (OSA) applied over an area which has been divided into logical grids. The drone scan estimated over an Acre field area sub-divided into 9-grid/3?3 matrix zones. The identification of neighbours generates a digraph for each node (grid). Once the neighbours are identified then optimal nodes are selected on which Drone performs scan and Information collection process. The scanning algorithm proposed uses 9-grid model to cover an area of approximately 33% of an Acre. The intention is to reduce the total number of scans by Drone in an Acre of crop field. The two modes of scans normal and fast are discussed and applied over 4 acre crop field contrasted over time factor. The placement of Drone before each scan controlled by Inter-Grid-Jumper and Intra-Grid-Jumper procedures which are designed to improve accuracy in data collection as well as reduce time complexity in crop filed monitoring for Drones.
Title: An Approach for Representation of Class Modeling in Object Oriented Analysis and Design with UML
Authors: Daljeet Singh and Parvinder Kaur
Abstract: Class Modeling describes the structure and behaviour of the system. Class Modelling provides a very sharp preview of the project to be analysed and to be delivered. Class Modeling indentifies various fictitious as well as actual Implementation of the project in a very patternfull manner so as the devolper aims at the satisfaction of the customer to whom he/she is deleivering the project. Through class modeling it is easy to compare it with the real world entities and express it with class diagrams and its corresponding relationships .It is easy for the developers to generate code.
Title: Effect of Monitoring Devices Error on Performance Ratio of Solar Power Plant
Authors: M.V.Pavan Kumar, K Narasimha Rao and K Rajinikanth
Abstract: In the present scenario with the increase of solar power generation in India, continuous research is carrying on to increase the power generations and the performance of the solar power plant. There is a need for the power plant owner to assess their accurate performance which influences the revenue directly. So there is need for high quality data continuously throughout the life of the plant. Therefore a measurement plays a crucial role in evaluation of solar power plant performance. Any deviations in monitoring device measurements have its effect on Performance Ratio (PR) of a solar power plant. The real time values of irradiance, module temperature and wind speed are measured using different devices and compared with the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. These values are analysed to find out the errors in the monitoring devices and their effect on 7 MW solar power plant performance ratio evaluations at EMMVEE solar park in Manempalli. Based on analysis these error can be eliminated using the proposed arrangements in the present system and also in Performance Ratio (PR) evaluation of solar power plant.
Title: Improving the Estimation of Channel Using Virtual Pilot Signals in Wireless Communication Systems
Authors: V. Mahesh,P. Krishna Murthy,S. Vamsee Krishna and Dr. V.Thrimurthulu
Abstract: The quantity of transmit and get radio wires in multi-input multi-yield (MIMO) frameworks is expanding quickly to improve the throughput and unwavering quality of cutting edge remote frameworks. Advantages of huge size MIMO frameworks, notwithstanding, can be acknowledged just when the nature of assessed channels is guaranteed at the transmitter and collector side alike. In this, we present another choice coordinated channel estimation strategy managing pilot deficiency in the MIMO-OFDM frameworks. The proposed channel estimator utilizes delicate image choices got by iterative recognition and disentangling (IDD) plan to upgrade the nature of channel assess. Utilizing the delicate data from the decoders, the proposed channel estimator chooses dependable information tones, subtracts inter-stream obstructions, and performs re-estimation of the channels. We investigate the ideal information tone determination paradigm, which represents the unwavering quality of image choices and relationship of channels between the information tones and pilot tones. From numerical recreations, we demonstrate that the proposed channel estimator accomplishes impressive change in framework execution over the customary direct estimators in sensible MIMO-OFDM situations
Title: Hybrid Fusion Methods for Fusion of CT and PET Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transform with Principle Component Analysis
Authors: A. Mounika,N. Keerthi,P. Krishna Murthy and Dr. V.Thrimurthulu
Abstract: Fusion technique will analyze the images and will improve the clinical diagnosis by the use of wavelet transform. Instead of using DFT, DCT techniques, fusion uses wavelet transform. The first generation of wavelet transform is not effective to analyze the integration of images. So, the second generation of Wavelet transform are analyzed and used for fusion of the images. After analyzing the images using wavelet, the frequency coefficients must be analyzed. For choosing low frequency coefficients, local area variance can be used. For high frequency coefficients, image pixels characteristics and window property are used. The technique which can be used for improving diagnosis and treatment is fusion Technique and it is the method of integration of one or more medical images like CT, PET images. This technique can be used on multi-focus image fusion and complementary image fusion and the real-time fusion can be implemented.
Title: Implementation of SRAM Array using Write and Read Assist Circuit Techniques
Authors: A. Pulla Reddy and G. Sreenivasulu
Abstract: In this paper, write and read assist circuit techniques are proposed and applied to 64 bit SRAM array. A new assists circuit for SRAM arrays, called a write assist and read assist is demonstrated here to improve the write-ability and stability of the memory cell at low voltage operations. In the write assist technique, to improve the write features of the SRAM cell, a negative voltage is applied to one of the bitlines in the SRAM cell while another bitline is connected to a precharge voltage. This technique is applied to a 6T SRAM cell. The proposed write assist technique enables 6T SRAM cell to operate with lower supply voltage compared with standard 6T SRAM cell without negative bitline write assist. Due to the improved supply voltage scalability a leakage power is reduced. The proposed design gives 1.2 times faster write time compared with the standard 6T SRAM cell with and without write assist. While write failures initially limit VMIN, applying write assist introduces row and column half-select failures. Thus, read and write assist must be combined to allow scaling VMIN down to near/sub threshold voltages. We find that combining negative bitline (BL) for write assist with reduced wordline voltage for read assist is most effective for reducing the array VMIN and eliminating half-select failures for commercial 180nm technologies across different process corners and temperatures. The proposed combination results in the highest reduction in SRAM VMIN (from 1.2V to 0.75V).
Title: Image Compression and Denoising using Wavelet Transform
Authors: Bhupender Singh, Parul Sharma, Dr. Rajesh Mehra and Shallu Sharma
Abstract: Wavelet Transform has been developed as an indispensable image and signal processing tool for various applications like denoising and compression. Discrete wavelet transform is one of the best compression techniques. The redundancy of discrete wavelet transform is reduced by thresholding. The quality of compressed images is analyzed on the basis of measures like peak to signal noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE),compression ratio (CR) and the numbers of bits required for storing one pixel is Bit per Pixel ratio (BPP). This paper present an application of wavelet transform in image compression using MATLAB. Image denoising and compression are exactly same idea in wavelet packet analysis as in wavelet framework but wavelet packet provides more flexible and complex analysis because detail and approximation are split.
Title: An Efficient Low Complexity Architecture for Floating Point Division with Double Precision
Authors: Shaik Asiya and P. Jaya Rami Reddy
Abstract: Floating point division is a central part arithmetic extensively used in scientific and engineering applications. This paper proposes an area efficient design of floating point division with double precision. It intended to work on dual- mode functionality for single and double precisions. The parallel functionality is its added feature. A radix-4 MB multiplier is used for mantissa computation. Other floating point division key components are modified for duality. The proposed model is synthesized under the Xilinx tool and compared the results with the single precision floating point division. The proven results shows the proposed design is efficient over the many related works of past over the area and delay.
Title: Wireless Network for Green Radio System by Using Hybrid Renewable Energy
Abstract: This deals with effective power utilization in Wireless Network using Green Radio and supplying Base Transceiver Station with a Hybrid Renewable Energy system. The Hybrid energy setup of this paper consists of Solar and Wind Energies. Green radio is the concept of decreasing the number of communication towers as per the number of users using the strong wireless sensor network by keeping the tower in idle mode. It is anticipated that the Hybrid Renewable system along with Green Radio, will contribute to global environmental protection on wireless networks. This concept along with the smart grid technology helps us to supply power to the households near the BTS when the BTS is in OFF condition. Hybrid power generation system helps network tower in rural locations without much dependence on commercial power generation systems.
Title: Embedded Systems and Autonomous Car
Abstract: Technical Brilliance and Developments in different fields have led to a drastic change especially in the communication field.. There are many paradigm shifts taking place due to information explosion and the concept of autonomous vehicle is one shift. Devices with intelligence rule the world. Imbibing intelligence to these devices is through a system called Embedded System. Embedded Systems are used in many ways. In business, to track inventories with bar codes and scanners, check the credit status of customers, and transfer funds electronically. In homes, tiny embedded systems in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature, operate home security systems, tell the time, and turn TV, Players on and off. In automobiles to regulate the flow of fuel, thereby increasing gas mileage, and are used in anti-theft systems. The car, which is embedded, can simulate the human driver completely and direct the vehicle on the road. Autonomous vehicle is the drastic change in technical brilliance and developments in different fields with Embedded System as pioneer