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    Volume-4 Issue-5

    Title: Biometric Security for Voting System Using Embedded Technology

    Authors: K. Karthika and C. Kohila

    Abstract: In this paper, iris bioscience has been chosen to be implemented for low error rates and also the hardiness their algorithms offer. Many style alternatives square measure conferred, and their analyses square measure according. With these results, most of the wants needed for the event of associate degree innovative identification product square measure lined. Results indicate that the architectures projected herein square measure quicker (up to twenty times), and square measure capable of getting error rates such as those supported pc solutions. at the same time, the protection and price for big quantities are improved.

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    Title: Wavelet Domain Image Resolution Enhancement Using Sobel Edge Detector

    Authors: G. Padma Priya and Prof. T. Ventakeswarlu

    Abstract: Image Resolution Enhancement is one of the pre or post processing steps for different image processing applications. Image Resolution Enhancement in Wavelet Domain is one of the active research areas in the field of Digital Image Processing, now - a - days. In Literature, different solutions are proposed with different approaches. In this paper, two new methods are proposed for resolution enhancement using Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform and Sobel Edge Detector with and without conventional interpolation technique. Inverse DWT requires four sub band images named LL, LH, HL, HH, which contains coarse version of original image, Horizontal, Vertical and Diagonal edge details respectively. In Proposed method 1, original Input Low Resolution image is considered as LL sub band. Horizontal and Vertical edge detail images obtained using Sobel edge detector, are treated as LH, HL sub band images. LL, LH and HL sub band images are interpolated using bicubic interpolation technique with scaling factor, s/2. Since HH sub band contains very less details of the original image, zero matrix of size equal to interpolated LL image is treated as HH sub band. Output High Resolution Image with resolution enhanced by a factor s is obtained by applying Inverse DWT on these four sub band images. In proposed method 2, instead of using interpolation technique, the entire method was iterated if the scaling factor is more than 2 with increasing resolution by factor of 2 in every iteration. These new techniques are tested on well known test images such as Lena, Elaine, Baboon and Peppers. Image Quality Measures such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Entropy, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Structural Similarity Index Metric (SSIM), Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are used for assessing the performance. Objective as well as subjective results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed techniques over conventional and state - of - the - art resolution enhancement techniques using DWT.

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    Title: Signal Analysis of Sensor System for Infection Detection in Dairy Products

    Authors: Sarita B.Dhoble and Dr. N. K. Choudhari

    Abstract: Food safety is the first parameter needed to achieve the global health goal as the food infection takes a major crisis on human health. So food safety and food security is continued to draw the attention of consumers, food manufactures and producers. So it is very essential that the quality of food material must be maintained.The prime intention of this research has been to study electronics sensor for the detection of infection which are widely occur in milk products. The experimental studies are used to design an electronics sensor system using infra red signal for the detection of infection. Highly efficient pathogen separation, extraction strategies are needed to achieve successful detection of infection. Therefore electronic system was proposed which can be used to study infection information, infection trajectories in milk material.

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    Title: Investigation on Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Various substrate Materials in Terahertz Regime

    Authors: P.Ram Prasad , Dr.A.Naga Jyothi and Prof.Dr.Rudra Pratap Das

    Abstract: Rectangular Microstrip patch antenna with graphite material at nano scale has been designed using Ansoft HFSS 13.0. The work emphasizes on the design of a microstrip antenna with rectangular patch for terahertz applications by simulation through the structural optimization according to the desired design specification like width (w) and length (l) and bandwidth of an antenna, relative permittivity (?r), and thickness of a substrate are considered for the calculation of patch dimensions. Substrates having the less di-electric constant were usually preferred for better performance hence few materials with less ?r are used as the substrate. The conducting patch can take any shape because of less complexity to analyse; so rectangular configurations are most commonly used. The different materials are Graphite, Quartz, Silica, Silicon, Polyamide, Aluminium, Gold and FR4 Epoxy which were used in this project. The impedance bandwidth or return loss(S11) and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) for the above mentioned materials were observed, analysed and it is proved that the design of the Microstrip antenna at nano scale is suitable for terahertz application. In this work, the comparison analysis for different substrate materials for a graphite based microstrip rectangular patch antenna has been done

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    Title: Node?Arc Link Restoration Model for National Science Foundation Network

    Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Rekha Mehra, Vanya Arun and H. K. Dixit

    Abstract: This research work presents simple integer linear program (ILP) formulations for node-arc link restoration model to optimize spare capacity utilization in National science foundation network (NSFNET). Link restoration model save the data at the previous node of failed link and turns away from that failed link. The previous node of each failed link dynamically discovers a different route around the link with the help of distributed algorithm. This paper provides detail study of node-arc link restoration model for spare capacity allocation planning with the help of NSFNET. This restoration model provides guaranteed protection against a link failure.

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    Title: Channel Estimation in Wireless OFDM Systems

    Authors: Govind Patidar and Vaibhav Jain

    Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) provides an effective and low complexity means of eliminating intersymbol interference for transmission over frequency selective fading channels. In this paper investigation and comparison of various efficient pilot based channel estimation schemes for OFDM systems has been done. The channel estimation can be performed by either inserting pilot tones into all subcarriers of OFDM symbols with a specific period or inserting pilot tones into each OFDM symbol. In this present study, two major types of pilot arrangement such as block-type and comb-type pilot have been focused employing Least Square Error (LSE) and MinimumMean Square Error (MMSE) channel estimators.

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    Title: Copy move forgery detection by matching triangles of key points via multi-scale analysis and voting processes

    Authors: Ravneet Kaur and Tejpal Sharma

    Abstract: One of the most common type of tempering the digital images is copy image forgery. As this work gives a new approach for detecting copy image forgery. As earlier detection methods are used for copy image forgery that basically use block matching approaches that firstly divide the images into overlap blocks and then find out the similar ones. As in this paper hybrid approach is used with new algorithm for detection and localization of accurate copy image forgery which is based on multi scale analysis. As novel hybrid approach compare single points or triangles instead of blocks, and can fastly match the nearest neighbor by patch matching. This algorithm is adapted for achieve high robustness with rotation and scaling changes. The interest points are extracted from the image and are clustered in a triangle shape. After that a multi scale image is constructed now the generated group is examined using descriptor that is strongly robust to scaling and rotation and partially to compression. This paper deals with increasing accuracy by matching using points in geometric shape instead of using block matching methods

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    Title: Finger Vein Recognition using Authentication and Texture features for removing the Spurious and False Minutia points

    Authors: Chetna Singla and Dapinder Kaur

    Abstract: Biometric is mainly used for security. It is mainly used for human identification using the many different physical traits. The traits can be used as biometrics are face, voice, signature, ect. But these types of traits are not perfectly secure. So, to overcome the security issue, a non-forgeable pattern as to be used. Biometric introduce a new technology i.e. Finger vein technology. This technology used the vein pattern which is hidden under the human finger for identification. These vein patterns are under the skin surface, which provide the huge security. Through the finger vein pattern it is very difficult to forge. In this paper, firstly enhanced the finger vein images by incorporating the concept of local histogram equalization, which improves the local contrast of an image. To enhance images by feature extracted using a combination of frangi filter, FAST (features from accelerated segment Test) algorithm and FREAK descriptors. After image enhanced, An approach to perform finger vein identification based on extracting minutiae features and the false (spurious) minutiae removal is presented in this paper. Minutiae features extraction includes the extraction of end points and bifurcation points from the skeletal pattern of vein and removal the false or spurious minutiae. Through these extraction the identification more accurate.

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    Title: Design of Rectangular Shaped Fractal Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Authors: Shashi B. Rana and Mehak

    Abstract: A new design of fractal antenna has been presented in this paper as an alternative solution to improve the bandwidth of the conventional microstrip patch antenna. This Fractal structure is implemented on rectangular shaped patch and several iterations are applied on initial shape. For achieving the desired miniaturization, and wideband properties, the fractal geometries have been exploited in antenna designing. Here, microstrip line is used to excite the antenna. The proposed fractal antenna is designed on RT-DUROID substrate of thickness 1.6mm and relative permittivity of 2.2 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6mm using IE3D software. In this design, we use iteration method to reduce metal usage, which results in low cost, and good reflection coefficient is achieved. Performance of the proposed antenna has been analyzed in terms of return loss, VSWR, input impedance, gain, and bandwidth in the 1 GHz to 5 GHz frequency range. For design validation, experimental results of fabricated antenna are obtained and compared with simulation results. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in well concurrence. The proposed antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of 68 % and high gain around the resonant frequency of 0.55 GHz. This antenna design can be used in Ground Penetration Radar (GPR), which is found to be suitable for land mine detection.

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    Title: Multi-level Cloud Authentication Model for Meta-heuristic Cloud Platforms

    Authors: Satpreet Kaur Mandeep Singh

    Abstract: The cloud platforms are the heavy computational resources available online for the online applications requires the high computational requirements and large storage requirements. The internal cloud resources require the authentication for the assurance of the data confidentiality and privacy of the data communication and user integrity in order to provide the secure access to the cloud computing resources. The high availability of the computational resources also attracts the hackers and crackers towards them. In this paper, a balanced and secure authentication scheme has been proposed for the security of the cloud computing resources. The proposed model is able to protect the cloud computing resources during the initial setup phase and post-setup phase. The complete security model requires to protect both of the communication stages (initial and post setup phases), which motivated us to ensure the security of the proposed model to protect both of the levels. The proposed model has been evaluated on the basis of various performance parameters. The experimental results have proved the efficiency of the proposed model against the existing authentication models for the cloud computing resources.

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    Title: Adaptive Inter-Quartile Range approach for denoising of Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Authors: K. Sateesh Kumar and G.Sreenivasulu

    Abstract: Denoising of a digital image is a prominent field of study in Digital Image Processing since,noise is an inevitable source in any communication system especially in satellite communication.Ingeneral,Speckle noise attacks he satellite imagery in an serious way.To reduce the effect of that noise,the present study proposed an efficient technique for denoising of satellite imagery using Adaptive Inter Quartile Range Technique (AIQR).In this technique,soft threshold is used for deciding whether the suspected pixel is noised or a valid signal as inspired by basic Inter Quartile Range Model (IQR).In this paper,this method is discussed by applying on Landsat-8 Operational Line Imager (OLI) sensor images which,are in the format of Tagged Information File Format (TIFF) over TirupatiRegion.Finally,outcomes are compared with Median Filter and Inter Quartile Range Filter.

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    Title: Low Power Consumption and Low Delay 64 Bit MAC Unit Using Modified Wallace Tree Multiplier and Carry Save Adder

    Authors: Parsharamulu Durgam and Goutham Kumar Gopagoni

    Abstract: Multiplication and addition are two important arithmetic operations used in the areas of Digital Signal processing for faster information processing. In this paper a high speed and a low power consuming 64 bit MAC (Multiply and Accumulate) unit is implemented with a modified Wallace tree multiplier and a carry save adder. The MAC unit has been designed in Verilog HDL (Hardware Description Language) and is synthesized using Xilinx ISE 14.3. The MAC unit is designed for reduced delay, lower power consumption and reduced area. The results obtained are compared with the existing designs.

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    Title: ARM Based Continuous Head Movement Estimator For A Driver Assistance And Alert System

    Authors: S. Mohan Das, M. Mahaboob Basha and B. Hymavathy

    Abstract: Analysis of driver?s head behaviour is an integral part of a driver monitoring system In day to day life there is a need for Driver Assistance systems for automate the vehicle systems for safety and better driving. Safety features are designed to avoid collisions and accidents by offering technologies that alert the driver to potential problems, or to avoid collisions by implementing safeguards and taking over control of the vehicle. This Paper presents an embedded system, which is used to provide driver security by head moment detection using MEMS sensor and control the vehicle. Implementation is done using ARM7 based LPC2148 board interfaced with DC motor, Micro Electro Mechanical Sensor (MEMS) and LCD for display purpose. There is a lot of requirement to automate the security systems to ensure the security of the Industry at low cost. The security system using MEMS sensor continuously monitor the head moment of the driver to alert the vehicle from accident. When head moment will detect, the vehicle speed will be reduced using pulse width modulation. The complete code for the embedded system is going to be developed using embedded c-language. The system uses a compact circuitry build around flash version of LPC2148 microcontroller with a non volatile memory.

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    Title: Survey on Security for Cloud Virtual Machine Using Different Techniques

    Authors: Surabhi Soni and Gaurav Goel

    Abstract: As the demand of cloud computing is increasing day-by-day, it provides the services and on-demand resources in the form of software and hardware over the internet. No doubt there is a major challenge in the cloud computing is security. Due to the advancement of cloud computing, it totally affects on customer virtual machine therefore there is a direct attack of malware on it. In this paper, there are some techniques which are defined to secure the virtual machines from intruders. These techniques can detect the malware by knowing the behavior of the system, already stored signatures in the database , device drivers , system call introspection, input-output introspection, process introspection , virtual machine introspection etc. By using these techniques virtual machine becomes more secure from intruders.

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    Title: Modified Reverse Converter Design With intervention of Efficacious Parallel Prefix Adders

    Authors: M. Mahaboob Basha and K. Venkata Ramanaiah

    Abstract: The residue number system (RNS) can play a vital role with the effects of its low-power features and immense performance. In the implementation of residue number system reverse converters the anatomy of prefix adders and its hybrid structures scrutinizes in the modified architectures and they are intervened as sub modules. To solve the high power consumption problem, novel specific hybrid parallel- prefix based adder integrants that anticipate better trade-off between delay and power consumption are here in presented to implement reverse converters. Demonstrative approaches of top module structures with certain anatomies are also described to design reverse converters based on various kinds of efficacious prefix adders like BRENTKUNG and LANDER FISCHER adders. This approach helps the designer to adjust the performance in the proposed modifications of the reverse converter based on the target application and existing curtailments. The RNS can operate mostly with the perplex nature of applications like as digital signal processing, parallel random access machine model of computing, algorithms for sorting integers and cryptography.

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    Title: Smart Channel sharing over the WiMax Environments using the Location wareness

    Authors: Komaljot Kaur and Amitabh Sharma

    Abstract: The call handover technique comes with some problem such as delay in response, lose of information, disturbance, insecure communication, and out of coverage area etc creates inefficient communication and decreases QoS. The cause of problem can be due to overloaded BS, latency delay and inefficient handover decision. This produces poor end-to-end performance which future produces low throughput, less total packet received, high end-to-end delay etc. This level of QoS is not sufficient for good call handover in mobile WiMAX. In the Proposed scheme we will have to avoid the data loss during handover by considering the soft handovers and propose a technique to select a base station for potential soft handover in WiMAX. We will develop a base station selection procedure that will optimize the soft handover such that there is no data loss; handover decision is taken quickly and thus improving overall handover performance.

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    Title: Encryption Data Propagation with Robust Authentication for the Security of Cognitive Radio

    Authors: Mehakpreet Kaur and Navleen Kaur

    Abstract: The cognitive radio channels are the channel noise reduction based systems, which works with the spectrum sensing model to detect the blind signals. The cognitive radio systems are not equipped with the security mechanism to protect them against the denial of service or packet flooding attacks. For the cognitive radio security against the denial of service attacks using packet flooding mechanism can be controlled by allocating the resources to the legitimate users only. To ensure the legitimacy of the primary user (who forwards the data) and secondary users (who perform the spectrum sensing task), we have proposed the key management scheme between both of the users.

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    Title: Black Spot Detection on Apple Fruits using Image Processing Techniques

    Authors: Kamalpreet Kaur and Dr. Rinkesh Mittal

    Abstract: Fruits are merely identified by their shape and color based features. However, the algorithm does not support of there is any ripening issue or any infection due to the disease. This leads to an incomplete picture of the fruit condition. If the algorithm is enriched by the complete information about the fruit then it can be a fruitful report that will help in segregating the fruits into different grades of quality and therefore costing can be done as well in the same accordance. This problem has been considered in the proposed research work.

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    Title: Development of Digital Watermarking Algorithm Using Lsb for Security Purpose

    Authors: Sanjana Kishor Kolhe and Dr.N.K.Choudhari

    Abstract: This paper is a simple and robust watermarking algorithm presented by the third and the fourth least significant bits (LSB) technique. The proposed algorithm is more robust than a traditional LSB technique and it has additional advantage of hiding the secret data inside the image. Using the proposed algorithm, we will embed two bits in the third and fourth LSB. Result of this paper shows that the quality of the watermarked image is higher. Stegnography is the art and science of invisible communication of messages. This is done by secret information and involving other information too, i e. hiding the existence of the communication information and the Hardware is used as a secrete key.

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    Title: Investigation of L, t-slots antennas for WiMAX Applications

    Authors: P.Ayyappa Kumar, Dr.A.Naga Jyothi and Prof.Dr.Rudra Pratap Das

    Abstract: In this paper, the rectangular patch antenna of coplanar waveguide (CPW) has been embedded with L , t-shaped slots introduced and compare with the CPW patch antenna without slots for WiMAX applications was proposed. Here, Flame Retardant has been used to design the antenna with a dielectric constant ?r = 4.3 and the height of the substrate is been used here is 1.6mm. Two slot designs have been introduced here one is with L-shaped and the other is with t-shaped. Here, the t-shaped slot will improve the Impedance Bandwidth, Directivity, VSWR, Gain, and also improves Antenna?s Bandwidth. The design of the antenna is done in Computer Simulation Software (CST) Microwave Studio. The tshaped antenna has been achieved a higher gain of 3.3db compared with L-shaped and CPW Patch antenna without slot.

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