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    Volume-4 Issue-4

    Title: Compression Techniques for ECG Signal: A Review

    Authors: Anju Malik and Rajender Kumar

    Abstract: The most recent improvement of biomedical signal processing, information technology and communication has brought a new measurement to the medical world. It is now possible to record an ECG signal with a convenient electrocardiograph trivial and able to convert a micro-computer in electrocardiograph with the possibility of a diagnostic aid for automatic analysis. At the present changing from a paper-based patient verification to a digital one. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the procedure of recording the electrical motion of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on a patient's body. The signal composed from the body wants to be processed and compressed before sending to monitoring center. ECG data compression reduced the storage necessities to build up a more efficient tele-cardiology system for cardiac analysis and diagnosis. This paper presents a study of different compression techniques for ECG data compression and comparison of different ECG compression techniques like TURNING POINT, AZTEC, CORTES, FFT and DCT it was initiate that DCT is the best appropriate compression technique with compression ratio of about 100:1.

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    Title: Conversion of Handwritten Text into Softcopy

    Authors: N.Ramya and G.Bhargavi

    Abstract: Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) is the computer conversion of handwritten text into readable language in the computer. It's the technology that allows data capture?software?to automatically read information from the handwritten text. The aim of our project is to convert the handwritten text into softcopy. The handwritten text is saved as image and it convert into binary image. Using segmentation process will find the line spacing of each word and separated first. Then each character is split separately. Support Vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to recognize the each character. In SVM algorithm, each character is trained by different style of writing and it is recognized. All this process are done using MATLAB.

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    Title: Voice for Speech Impaired People Using MEMS and Flex Sensors

    Authors: Bhargavi.G and Ramya.N

    Abstract: The communications of dumb people with others are only by using the motion of their hands and expressions. We proposed a new technique called artificial speaking mouth for dumb people. It will be very helpful to them for conveying their thoughts to others. Some people are easily able to get the information from their motions. The remaining is not able to understand their way of conveying the message. In order to overcome the complexity, the artificial mouth is introduced for the dumb people. This system is based on the motion sensor(MEMs) and flex sensor. It also provides a compact portable device.

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    Title: Dispersion compensation of 40 Gbps DWDM system using FBG (fiber Bragg grating) Filter

    Authors: Daleep Singh Sekhon and Harmandar Kaur

    Abstract: In this paper we implemented the 40Gbps DWDM system using FBG (fibre Bragg grating) for compensating dispersion. In this DWDM system 4 channels each channel having a data rate of 10Gbps and 0.8nm equal channel spacing is transmitted by transmitter. This transmitted signal is multiplexed by 4:1 multiplexers and it is passed through DCF (Dispersion compensation fibre) of length 18.65km and link length of 200km. At the receiver section signal is first de-multiplexed by 1:4 de-multiplexers then filtered with FBG (fibre Bragg grating) for compensating dispersion. At the receiver section 4 FBG are used one for each channel operated at their own channel frequency and each FBG having dispersion coefficient value of -750ps/nm. The system performances are evaluated on the basis of Q-factor, BER and eye opening. The performances of system provides good and acceptable results at 200km link length with using FBG and without using FBG at this link length (200km) system performances degrades because of presence of dispersion in the signal.

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    Title: Survey on Routing Protocols for VANET

    Authors: Poonam Heigher and Er Kamal Khajuri

    Abstract: During the study of various papers, I had gone through various techniques adopted by authors in VANET. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are the emerging research area to provide safety and reliability not only to the travellers as well as passengers. It becomes the vital support for intelligent transport system Large-scale peer-to-peer systems want to have safety from faulty or hostile remote computing elements. To resist these threats, many such systems employ dismissal. However, if a single faulty entity can present multiple identities, it can control a substantial fraction of the system. Hence safety is an important concern in VANETs because a malevolent user may intentionally mislead other vehicles and vehicular agencies. One type of malevolent behaviour is called a Sybil attack, wherein a malevolent vehicle pretends to be multiple other vehicles. Reported data from a Sybil attacker will appear to arrive from a large number of vehicles, and hence will be credible.. A lot of research works have been proposed and executed towards it but security issues in VANET is not yet fully executed. In this article, I have discussed about the VANET,characteristics and challenges and security concerns attacks and I have explained about Sybil attack and how to mitigate it using MURU Protocol.

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    Title: An Enhanced Secured multi hop routing Protocol for VANET

    Authors: Poonam Heigher and Er Kamal Khajuri

    Abstract: During the study of various papers, I had gone through various techniques adopted by authors in VANET. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are the materialized research area to provide safety and consistency not only to the drivers as well as passengers. It becomes the critical support for intelligent transport system Large-scale peer-to-peer systems face security threats from faulty or unfavourable remote compute elements. To resist these threats, many such systems employ repetition. However, if a single faulty entity can Show multiple identities, it can control a large fraction of the system. Hence Security is an important concern in VANETs because a malicious user may double cross other vehicles and vehicular agencies. One type of malevolent behaviour is called a Sybil attack, wherein a malevolent vehicle dupes to be multiple other vehicles. Reported data from a Sybil attacker will come into sight to arrive from a large number of unambiguously vehicles, and hence will be credible.. A lot of research works have been proposed and resolved towards it but security issues in VANET is not yet fully resolved. In this article, I have discussed about the VANET, characteristics and challenges and security concerns attacks and I have Proposed technique using MURU Protocol to mitigate Sybil attack.

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    Title: Analysis, feature extraction and compression of ECG signal with DWT technique using NI-BIOMEDICAL WORKBENCH & LABVIEW

    Authors: Anju Malik and Rajender Kumar

    Abstract: Lab VIEW and the signal processing-related toolkits can provide a robust and efficient environment and tools for resolving ECG (Electrocardiogram) signal dispensation difficulty. This term paper demonstrate how to use these advance powerful tools in denoising, extracting, analyzing, ECG signals simply and suitably not only in heart illness diagnosis but also in ECG signal processing research. This paper presents study and analysis of ECG signal using LABVIEW (Advance signal processing toolkit as well as biomedical workbench 2014). This paper also discuss on Heart rate monitoring and ECG signal compression using DWT (discrete wavelet transform) technique. Data is imported from online data bank files, such as Physio bank MIT-BIH record to the application in this tool kit for examination. The proposed algorithm is executed in two steps. In the first stage, ECG indication is acquired which is after that followed by filtering the raw ECG signal to remove unwanted noises. Then the next stage focuses on extracting the features from the acquired ECG indication then it detects heart rate, heart rate standard deviation, QRS amplitude, QRS standard deviation, QRS width, PR-interval, QT-interval their onsets and offsets, as well as at last visualize and analyze the extraction outcome.

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    Title: Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Noise Canceller Based on Multirate Filter Technique

    Authors: Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Jai Preet Kour Wazir, Shabir Ahmad Parrah and G. Mohiuddin Bhat

    Abstract: This paper presents the structure of the Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) using the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm based on Multirate filters. The filtering idea with the ANC has been employed due to the fact that ANC is not able to filter out the distortion from the signal completely. Further the comparison between Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC) Decimation filter and Adaptive filter has also been investigated. The performance in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) have been performed it have been observed that Multirate filter reveals better results than Adaptive filter and the simulation results have been presented.

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    Title: Suppression of FWM in 80 Gbps DWDM System using Orthogonal Polarisation Technique

    Authors: Karanjot Singh and Harmandar Kaur

    Abstract: Simulative analysis of 80 gbps DWDM system is carried out to suppress FWM. Also, comparative analysis is carried out between systems using polarisation and without using polarisation techniques. In order to mitigate the effect of four wave mixing, orthogonal polarisation has been developed. FWM time average power depends upon relative state of polarisation of the mixing channel. State of polarisation for the adjacent channels can be randomly assigned orthogonal to each other. System is analysed for the length of 250 km.

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    Title: Energy Efficient Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Authors: Vandana Rani, Sudesh Nandal and Sandeep Dahiya

    Abstract: A WSN consists of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational and transmission capability. It is essential to operate the sensor network for a long period of time in an energy efficient manner for gathering sensed information. Due to the limited transmission and computational ability, and high density of sensor nodes, data packets forwarding takes place in multi-hop data transmission. Therefore routing in wireless sensor networks is a significant area of investigation in the past few years. The sensor nodes run on non-rechargeable batteries, so besides the efficient routing, the network should be efficient in energy with efficient utilization of the resources and hence this is an important research concern.

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    Title: Performance Analysis of Channel Spacing Variation in the presence of FWM for a DWDM System

    Authors: Meenakshi, Er. Nitika Soni and Er. Harmandar Kaur

    Abstract: The effect of different channel spacing on 16 channel DWDM system is compared in the presence of FWM effect. The variation in the input power of CW laser is also studied. The effect of dispersion has also been considered in the fiber and pre dispersion compensation technique has been mitigating the effect. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of Q-factor, BER and output from the optical spectrum analyzer.

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    Title: Optimized Turbo Decoder Architecture

    Authors: Ms. Prabhavati Dhondappa Bahirgonde and Dr. Shantanu K. Dixit

    Abstract: This paper presents a novel technique for computing forward and backward state metrics. In general, MAP algorithm architecture uses add-compare-select operation for computing state metrics. The proposed architecture uses compare-select-add operation to compute state metrics. In this architecture, branch metric and state metric are compared parallely. Due to this, the delay introduced by architecture is less. The data length considered is different for state metric and branch metric. The iterative decoding is done using Max-Log-MAP algorithm and modified Max-Log-MAP algorithm and then BER performance is tested. The modified algorithm gives improvement in BER performance.

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    Title: Wavelet Transform Based Method to Improve the Signal to Noise Ratio for Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiler Data

    Authors: Pennam Krishna Murthy and Dr. S. Narayana Reddy2

    Abstract: Wind Profiler is most suitable remote sensing tool for measuring the height profile of wind vector with high time and continuous high resolution in all weather conditions. It is a potential tool for studying Atmospheric Boundary Layers dynamics (winds, turbulence). Signal processing of this atmospheric radar is necessary to measure the height profile of wind vector by detecting the Doppler shift of echoes from turbulent irregularities of radio refractivity. Computation of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is an important parameter in signal processing. These radars achieve better range resolution with a maximum average power (height coverage). The Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiler (LAWP) data have been obtained from the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki, India. This paper discusses the improvement of SNR using dB11 wavelet for Lower Atmospheric signals. SNR for this LAWP data is computed for original signal and wavelet de-noised signals are compared with the FFT de-noised signals. Results show that there is 21 dB improvements in SNR after de-noising using dB11 wavelet for Lower Atmospheric signals.

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    Title: A Review on Defense Strategies in WSN Based On Various Design Issues and Types of Attacks

    Authors: Neelam and Rashwinder Singh

    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are the advanced and latest method of creating an observable network for hostile environment. These sensor networks interconnect several nodes when established in large area. This opens up several technical challenges and immense application possibilities. But there are certain issues related to WSN, which include battery dependence of the sensor node, routing of packets to destined nodes and security from the malicious nodes or attackers. In this paper we have highlighted different issues of WSN, possible attacks and their security mechanisms.

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    Title: Speed Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor using Carrier Based Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation method energized from Solar Cell

    Authors: Anamika Dewangan

    Abstract: Space vector pulse width modulation method is fast growing one of the advance and efficient method based on pulse width modulation for adjustable frequency induction motor drives. By adjusting frequency of induction motor speed can be controlled and ripple free output voltage can be obtained. The objective of this paper is to produce ripple free torque, less harmonic distortion with maintained constant switching frequency without sector selection by using carrier based SVPWM. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of SVPWM on an induction motor by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The theoretical analysis, design, switching sequence and implementation of the SVPWM for three-phase induction motor is presented in this paper. Results such as current, voltage and output power for each various combination have been recorded.

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    Title: Study of Different Geometries of Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Authors: SwatiMinhas and Dishant Khosla

    Abstract: In the past few years microstrip patch antenna has been extensively indemand across the world because of its several advantages. The advantages of MPA over other antennas is its ease of construction, low fabrication cost, mechanically robust, good radiation pattern, high gain, multiband operations, ease of availability of material used for manufacturing of antenna and many more.The operational frequencies of Antenna for WiMAX are (2.5/3.4/5.3)GHz and for WLAN are (2.4/5.15/5.72) GHz. To obtain better results in wireless communication various types of design techniques are used f.eg Different types of slots are used on the patch which may cause miniaturization of antenna size, Different types of materials are used for the construction of substrate which give more accurate results, Different shapes of patch are used which may provide wide bandwidth, shorting and folding technique are used which may provide cost effective solutions. In this study the major features of antenna and different slot shapes of antenna are studied along with their effect on their performance in wireless communication.

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    Title: The Digital Signal Processing Ultrasonic System For Extraction of %Fixed Carbon, %Volatile Matter, & % Ash in Coal

    Authors: Ms.D.M.Kate, Dr.N.K.Choudhari and Dr (Mrs.) A.R.Chaudhari

    Abstract: Today in almost all coal fired power stations, the main problem is to evaluate the coal properties before using it. Conventional coal test methods are well established and are widely used in laboratories worldwide. However, these methods often involve the use of wet analysis or the use of typical laboratory bench scale apparatus and are time consuming. The rapid increase in coal utilization in the twenty-first century led to the development of a number of test methods for coal analysis so as to correlate coal composition and properties with its performance and behavior Various NDT techniques can be use to analyze coal samples very efficiently. In general the ultrasonic testing is used for flaw detection and localization in tested materials. Flaws in materials are commonly characterized in measured ultrasonic signals by faults echoes. This paper presents the implementation of the digital signal processing (DSP) ultrasonic system for extraction of properties of coal. The system is implemented in graphical user interface (GUI) in Matlab. In this research work, the received signal from the ultrasonic transducer was stored in digital storage oscilloscope. The spectral analysis of signal has been performed using MATLAB. Just by sampling a small amount of coal, the NDT techniques can accurately analyze the calorific value and the percentage of fixed carbon, Volatile matter and ash. The system is implemented in graphical user interface (GUI) in Matlab.This research is beneficial to analyze signals passing from coal.

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    Title: Design Approach for Inter Vehicular Communication in ITS

    Authors: Prof. P.P. Ashtankar and Dr. Sanjay S. Dorle

    Abstract: For effectively assess the intelligent transportation system some safety metric estimate is one of the major challenge in vehicular networking research. Our focus is in using Inter-vehicular Communication (IVC) beaconing for increasing driver safety. In several study by vehicular networking community reported that to evaluate safety enhancing protocol and application simple network metric such as delays and packet loss are not sufficient. We present classification that addresses need by calculating how many potential crashes happen or can be avoided by using IVC approach. We investigated impact of safety messages between car approaching at intersection using road traffic simulator that allow selected vehicle to disregards traffic rules. We show that in suburban area simple beaconing is not as effective as predicted. However simple one hop relaying i.e. by vehicles parked close to an intersection can improve driver safety. As safety is key purpose of IVC, paper having loop in evaluation of the effectiveness of vehicular networks.

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