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    Volume-7 Issue-2

    Title: Influences of Data Compression Method in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Authors: Rajiv Ranjan Tewari and Snehi Saraswati

    Abstract: In WSNs, the conservation of energy is a very important factor. The energy is consumed during radio communication. The sensor lifetime is extended by reducing the transmission overhead. Here, a data compression technique has been proposed. This technique is applied in temporal correlation of sensing data, transformation of data from one dimension to two dimension and data separation having 16 bits in upper and lower each 2- dimensional using discrete Fourier transform method. It is observed that proposed technique is helpful in reducing the consumption of energy and it may be obtainable by data rate control.

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    Title: FPGA-based Implementation of Galois Field Arithmetic

    Authors: Kinny Garg and Dr. J.S. Sohal

    Abstract: Error control coding for detecting and correcting errors in digital signals has assumed utmost importance in the modern world. This paper proposes a novel way to implement the Galois field arithmetic, the cornerstone of error-control coding, on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) using Verilog hardware description language (HDL). In this paper, we develop and implement the Galois Field arithmetic operations such as multiplying two elements, converting an element from primitive element power form to cartesian (or vector) form and vice-versa, and finding the inverse of an element, on FPGA. Error control coding is a good candidate for FPGA-based hardware implementation because FPGAs come with the advantages of reconfigurability, reprogrammability, design flexibility, reduced development times, and speedy operations.

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    Title: Sharing Healthcare Data with Security over Cloud

    Authors: Jaishree Jain and Dr. Ajit Singh

    Abstract: With the present technological advancement across all the sectors, Healthcare Sector is working hard to integrate the IT enabled services in its system specifically to keep the medical reports of the patients. The use of cloud computing is one of the parts that has been used in the health care sector that has enabled all the data to be used from any place and at any time. Moreover the application of cloud computing has saved the cost and time to deliver the services to the patients. Applying for the cloud computing benefits in the healthcare area not just inspires the trading of electronic health records among the remedial facilities but in addition empowers the cloud to go about as a medicinal record storing. The technique used in the paper to study the impact is based on Depsky Algorithm and Secret Sharing Algorithm. Further, we use Key Aggregate Cryptosystems (KAC) algorithm for sharing our data with the concerned doctors privately and securely. We believe our work can offer a higher awareness of the security challenges of disseminated processing against hacking of information by the programmer.

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    Title: Design and Analysis of Low-Voltage Low-Power Tri-state Buffers and its Application using 22-nm CMOS Technology

    Authors: M. Madhusudhan Reddy, M. Sailaja and K. Babulu

    Abstract: In memory architecture, the standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and clocked CMOS (C2MOS) tri-state buffers lie in the critical path that affects the overall speed of the memory. The standard CMOS and C2MOS logic based tri-state buffers require 12 and 8 Transistors. The internal circuitry in tri-state buffer is responsible for the huge time-delay and more power. Two novel tri-state buffer circuits have been proposed. They are Transmission Gate (TG) based tri-state buffer and pseudo-nMOS with active enable pull-up tri-state buffer, designed and examined using mentor graphics tool at 22-nm CMOS technology. The proposed tri-state buffer circuits are compared with existing ones by varying the supply voltage in the range of 0.4V-to-1V. The optimization of transistor count leads to the reduction of logical effort (G) and parasitic delay (p) of the circuit. The proposed TG tri-state buffer occupies less delay of about 47% and 31.8% when compare to existing ones for all considered supply voltages. The stacking effect contributes to reduced static power of about 36% and 33% using TG tri-state buffer as compared to CMOS and C2MOS. The proposed TG tri-state buffer exhibits high speed and low power-delay-product (PDP) of about 72% and 66% as compared to existing ones. By using Euler?s path approach, optimization of an area takes place by the TG logic based tri-state buffer by a factor of about 72.62% and 44.44% as compared to standard CMOS and C2MOS tri-state buffers.

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    Title: Predicting Usability of Library Websites: Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Inference System Approach

    Authors: R.R. Kamat, R.S. Kamath and S.M. Pujar

    Abstract: Authors report soft computing approach for predicting usability of library websites using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). Proposed model is the fusion of these two computing paradigms to create a successful synergic effect. The website usability dataset is derived from doctoral thesis on Usability Evaluation of Library Websites [1]. Usability index (UI) determinants such as visibility, SR_world, user control, consistency, error, recognition, flexibility, aesthetic, recovery, documentation, effectiveness, efficiency, memorability, learnability, satisfaction and motivation are considered here for computing. The reported investigations depicts optimum ANN architecture achieved by tuning the parameters viz. network type, training function, transfer function and number of neurons in hidden neurons. ANN architecture, thus derived entails hidden layer with nonlinear sigmoid activation function and Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation method for training the model. Moreover the performance of the model is evaluated with reference to Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r), Mean Squared Error (MSE), and Gradient (g). Validation of the model has portrayed reasonably good prediction accuracy.

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    Title: Design of CPW-Fed Elliptical Monopole Antenna for Wideband Applications

    Authors: R.V.R.N.S.Ramya, V.Sai Mounika, Ch.Murali Krishna and S.Jagan Mohan Rao

    Abstract: In this paper, ellipse shaped patch antenna design is proposed for wide band applications. The main purpose of this work is to obtain a maximum bandwidth. Initially, the planar elliptical antenna has Ultra Wideband (UWB) characteristics. The dual band antenna resonates at 6.44GHz and 9.04GHz. The Tri ? Wide band antenna resonates at 4.05GHz,5.96GHz and 14.42GHz with the impedance bandwidths 460MHz(3.83-4.29GHz),1.83GHz(4.62-6.45GHz),9.03GHz(7.45-16.5GHz) respectively. The proposed antenna has Omni -directional radiation characteristics and has its applications over S-band, C-band, X-band and Ku-band such as weather and ship radars, Wi-Fi, satellite and wireless communication.

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    Title: A Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Authors: Veeresh M. Hiremath, Prof. G. A. Bidkar and Vidyarani M. Katigar

    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) domain is among the most embryonic fields in today?s rapid developing and smart world with ample applications such as healthcare, wildlife and environmental monitoring, defence, landslide detection etc. Any fundamental wireless sensor network is composed of multiple sensor nodes deployed randomly in order to collect, aggregate and transmits the data to the base station. As the battery of the sensor node can neither be recharged nor be replaced, design of routing protocols having better network lifetime is the critical issue for researchers. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) was the fundamental and traditional routing protocol scheme proposed for WSNs. Advancements and auxiliary improvements in this routing scheme have been done for optimization of the network parameters as per the requirements of the applications. In this paper, the author has surveyed various energy efficient routing protocol schemes which are the enhanced versions of basic LEACH algorithm. The author has also performed a comparative analysis and tabulated that for the surveyed routing schemes.

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    Title: Automatic Target Recognition in RADAR at Terahertz Frequencies Using RNN and ANFIS: A Comparative Study

    Authors: Kaustubh Bhattacharyya, Rima Deka and SunandanBaruah

    Abstract: Automatic target recognition (ATR) in RADAR with very high frequency signal (Terahertz range) is increasingly becoming important primarily for modern defense strategy. Signal processing plays a vital role for extracting the appropriate information (features) to train a soft computing tool such as Neural Network and Fuzzy. The recognition rate of such tools is heavily dependent on the extracted feature. In this paper, an efficient method of target recognition at terahertz frequencies using recurrent neural network (RNN) and adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) is presented. The ATR algorithm is supported by some efficient signal processing techniques to extract the features of the target. The method adopted for feature extraction in this work is wavelet decomposition. A comparison between RNN and ANFIS for target recognition was made and it is reported here that the ANFIS provides better recognition rate than RNN for target recognition in terahertz frequency.

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    Title: Enhancement of Fault Tolerance during Load Balancing in Cloud Computing

    Authors: Bikash Chandra Pattanaik, Kabrambam Rupabanta Singh and Chandralekha

    Abstract: Cloud computing is built upon the advancement of virtualization and distributed computing to support cost-efficient usage of computing resources and to provide on demand services. The primary aim of cloud computing is to provide efficient access to remote and geographically distributed resources by maintaining the property of reliability. However the processing on remote computers creates more chances of occurrence of errors .So there is a need of creating fault tolerant system to maintain the reliability of the remote commuters. This paper focuses on maintenance load balancing and enhancing the fault tolerance of the system by integrating the reactive and proactive approaches of fault management. Our proposed system has been simulated by using Cloudsim plus and the simulation result shows that the reliability and fault tolerance has enhanced.

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    Title: Robust Image Watermarking Theories and Techniques in Transform Domain: A Review

    Authors: Ramneek Kaur Brar and Harpal Singh

    Abstract: The protection of multimedia contents has turn out to be a crucial problem with the explosive expansion in the development of electronic commerce and online services. Watermarking is one of the most widely used technologies to tackle this problem in which a watermark is added to the original multimedia in such a way that it must not cause serious degradation of the original digital media. A good watermarking algorithm must satisfy three criteria: the lawful ownership security, sturdiness in opposition to the image manipulations, and imperceptibility of the watermark. In this paper, we have reviewed the theoretical analysis of various watermarking techniques in wavelet domain. In addition, a brief discussion on the properties of watermarking systems, wavelet domain, watermarking attacks, various domains of watermarking and robustness and security considerations for digital watermarking has been presented. With extensive research in the field of digital image watermarking, we find a huge scope in the development of novel watermarking techniques by hybridization of various transforms.

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    Title: Template Matching and its Application in Image Processing

    Authors: Prof. N. M. Pagare, Prof. G. R. Gupta, Prof. S. D. Jadhav and Prof. Dr. S. M. Kamalapur

    Abstract: Pattern recognition explains complex process of decision making and automates it using computers. Pattern recognition can be mainly categorized into following approaches: template matching, syntactic Methods, neural networks, and statistical methods. Template matching is mostly used for pictures and image processing. Recently lots of research is going in the area of template matching to resolve various issues in this field. In this study, various applications of template matching in different domains are discussed

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    Title: Analysis of Symbol Error Rate For ?-?/ ?- ? Fading Channel

    Authors: Kiranpreet Kaur, Dr. T. S. Kamal and Dr. J. S. Ubhi

    Abstract: In this paper average symbol error rate (ASER)has been calculated in interference limited environment while assuming that desired signal has been affected by ?-? fading and interference signal has been affected by ? - ? fading.Error has been calculated for coherent frequency shift keying (CFSK) and coherent phase shift keying (CPSK). Evaluated results have been plotted for different parameters.

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    Title: An IoT Cloud Based School Zone Vehicle Monitoring System

    Authors: Pratiksha, Rinita Sherene.S and Ms.M.Felcy Jeba Malar

    Abstract: Road accidents are rising day by day. Major reason for these mishaps is due to rash driving or over speeding of the vehicle. This speed control mechanism will help in limiting the speed of the vehicle. The system is designed by using a tiny microcontroller which will reduce the size and cost of the hardware. The proposed system also suggests a child safety mechanism specially designed for students in the school zone roadways. The system does various tasks such as recognizing information of each vehicle using IOT cloud service, which will interchange the data with the RF reader by means of radio waves and display each school?s name on the screen. This allows the driver to know the school zone roadway and control the vehicle with safety measures.

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    Title: Survey of Mathematical Models based on Load Balancing using Fog-Cloud Networks

    Authors: Asha Sohal and Ramesh Kait

    Abstract: Fog computing is an emanate archetype that is considered as the next level of Cloud Computing. Now a days and trends, the propagation of data and its data nodes in the IoTs has posed hurdles for the cloud architecture. Fog computing can direct those challenges by providing flexi resources to its end users at the edge of the network i.e. closer to the users. The main objective of this research is to work out over an idea of reference architectures, mathematical model of load balancing with its similar applications and threats with the fog archetype. It is also known as methods of optimization computing which amplify cloud based computing through unfolding localization computing readiness nearby ground of users and it creates warehouse of cloud related data and disperse a very fast access rate local connections to mobile users. As of now, fog computing come up with an intervening fog panel in between mobile/end users and cloud panel, and counterpart/complements cloud based computing towards less waiting and higher access services to end users. This paper includes elementary frame work which is mandatory to focus on the interplay and teaming among the edge (fog) and in upper layer (cloud). This paper focuses on compensation among power or energy consumption and on the basis of communication suspension in the fog-cloud computing networking system. Also, this paper analyzes a workload allotment crunch which recommends relative optimize data distribution in between the fog layer and cloud layer towards the minimum energy utilization with the stiff delay in service.

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    Title: A Mahalanobis distance based Partitioned Path Planning Approach for Performing Coverage Path Planning under Cashew Trees

    Authors: KalaivananSandamurthy and KalpanaRamanujam

    Abstract: A novel partitioned coverage path planning algorithm for discrete harvesting in cashew orchards is proposed. Collection of fruits and nuts that fall in the floor, is a challenge faced by the farmers in India. The task is highly labour intensive and time consuming process. Earlier research has focused mainly on path planning for continuous crops. A novel distance metric based on Mahalanobis distance is formulated for efficient path planning. The metric takes into about the correlation between various parameters associated with a fruit for computation of paths. A partitioned path planning approach is followed to minimize the computational overhead. Various partition sizes are evaluated for computation of paths and an optimal partition value is proposed based on the computed results. The proposed technique is evaluated against existing techniques for coverage, and also on parameters such as percentage of coverage, standard deviation in the results.

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    Title: A Statistical View of Correctness at Requirement Stage

    Authors: Dr. Brijesh Kumar Bhardwaj and Dr. R. M. L. Avadh

    Abstract: Software quality shows crucial role in software development life cycle. Here we will be advocated that correctness have created positive impact on software process. In requirement stage, the correctness was accessing from the architecture issue, for example method correctness and attributes correctness. So correctness, experts are access the complete information from the software. This paper highlighted that detail parameters observation of SRS document at requirement stage. Detection of correctness issues provides to initialize software quality enhancement.

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    Title: Sensorless Speed Control of BLDC Motor Using Different Back EMF Techniques

    Authors: R.Gobi and S.Raja

    Abstract: For both domestic and industrial applications, the BLDC motor is widely being used. They are popularly used due to its reliability, controllability and compact size. BLDC motor is normally operated with one or more rotor position sensors or position encoders. This paper provides exceptional Sensorless strategies for Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor. The BLDC automobiles have an internal stator again EMF that is trapezoidal waveform with the help of this BEMF the method is proposed. This proposed technique will gives a wide range of speed. The indirect BEMF are two types they are third harmonic voltage detection and BEMF integration method. In 3rd harmonic BEMF method, the back EMF component is extracted from phase voltages (stator), third harmonic signals was filtered and it is fed as triggering pulse for the inverter. Even though this method provides a better speed performance than exiting one, it requires heavy filtering devices and a power quality issue arises. To overcome all these we are going for the Indirect BEMF integration method. In this method, the BEMF are extracted from the stator and it was send across the conditioning & integrating circuit to reduce the PQ issues. This method provides as wide range of speed control, reduced PQ disturbance and better efficiency. But, the dynamic performance of the method is not effective. So we proposing Direct BEMF method, which is highly effective than that of indirect methods. The simulation results of these methods are discussed in the below chapters. The simulation for proposed systems are done using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package (R 2014).

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    Title: Performance Analysis of Dielectric Inserted Vertical MLGNR Interconnects

    Authors: YeletiHaritha, MekalaGirish Kumar and GadelaSreenivasaRao

    Abstract: In this paper, the crosstalk analysis of the normal multiple layer graphene nanoribbon (NMLGNR), dielectric MLGNR (DiMLGNR) and doped MLGNR (DMLGNR) is evaluated. The comparative analysis is performed among the NMLGNR, DMLGNR and DiMLGNR. From this it is observed that DiMLGNR exhibits the lowest crosstalk delay. Further, the crosstalk analysis is performed among the normal vertical GNR (NVGNR), doped (VGNR) and the dielectric VGNR (DiVGNR). It is observed that the DiVGNR shows better performance than NVGNR and VGNR. After that the crosstalk analysis is performed by using the ternary logic system by using the active shielding technique. The comparative analysis is performed among the active shielding copper (ASCu), active shielding dielectric horizontal GNR (ASDiHGNR) and the active shielding DiVGNR (ASDiVGNR). Finally, the comparison is done among the all the dielectric inserted interconnects that is DiMLGNR, DiVGNR and ASDiVGNR.

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    Title: Estimation of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Region Using AVHRR Sensor Data and Validation with In-Situ Measurements

    Authors: D. Jeevalakshmi, S. Narayana Reddy and B. Manikiam

    Abstract: Surface temperature measurements over large spatial and temporal scales are necessary for many applications like urban land use/land cover, geo-/biophysical, climate, and environmental studies. Estimation of land surface temperature is difficult especially over vegetated and hard rock terrain and requires proper validation before use. Split window technique provides improved accuracy of estimation by accounting for atmospheric effects. NOAA AVHRR sensor provides split channel data and same has been used in this present study. Many Split window algorithms are available and in the present study the algorithms proposed by Becker, Sobrino and Ulivieri have been used. The area of interest to estimate LST is over Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India, for the period March, 2017, using National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA 19) ? Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) thermal bands. AVHRR images of clear sky with nonhomogeneous land cover types have been used in this study. An attempt has been made to derive emissivity in the thermal channels using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) along with the fractional vegetation cover at each pixel level. The results show that there exists a good correlation between the retrieved LSTs and the measured LSTs, when Ulivieri algorithm was used over the vegetated land cover type with an average RMSE value of 3.22.

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    Title: QCA Implementation of Ultra-Low Power High Speed Reversible 2?2 Array Multiplier

    Authors: Vignesh M, Praveen G, SarathaPriya E, Stephen Arul Doss P and Vijaya Kumar G

    Abstract: Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a developing nanotechnology that appears to be a good technology to replace the conventional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This QCA has the advantages of very low power dissipation, faster switching speed and extremely low circuit area which can be used to design Nano Scale circuits. In this paper, the New Efficient QCA Designs of the basic Reversible Gates such as: CNOT gate, Feynman gate, Double Feynman gate are shown based on the straight interactions between the QCA cells. Also the designs of 4-bit Reversible Ripple Carry Adder and 2x2 Reversible Array Multiplier using the proposed efficient Reversible Gates are implemented. The proposed layouts are designed and simulated using QCA Designer Software. In comparison with existing Reversible Gate based QCA designs, the proposed layouts are implemented with the minimum number of cells, minimum delay and also minimum area without any wire-crossing techniques. Also, as compared to the CMOS technology, the proposed layouts are more efficient in terms of the area and power. Therefore, the proposed design can be used to realize quantum computation in Ultra-Low power circuits.

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    Title: Wireless Humidity Sensor Application for the Specially Abled Persons using Control Systems

    Authors: Krishnaveni K, Ida Malarselvi R, Priscilla Jarve, Ramachandra Raja C, JosephVedhagiriS and Manikandan K and Pooja Rani B

    Abstract: The Wheel chair of our Model is the first to rescue and automated support render to the disable when they may be a Visually, Hearing, Leg impaired, Paralysis attacked, Old age persons etc., to render such kind of support to the disables the sensors of Humidity, Temperature, LDR, are used these sensor send input to the PIC Microcontroller 16F877A and send output to the LCD, Voice board, GSM module to control different loads. This prototype model of the device renders support to the disable when they are alive lonely in house, like a human attender who is always with them and supports them to lead their day to day routine work. A hardware is also developed by using humidity, temp., LDR sensors and its operations verified, A Mathematical analysis done by the applications of Control Systems Block diagram, Signal flow graph, Mason?s formulae method to prove the performance of the hardware and signal flow between the input and output of the designed hardware.

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    Title: A survey of Bio-processor and its applications

    Authors: K. Manikantan

    Abstract: This article proposed to a survey of Bio-processor and its applications. A bio-processor is a collection of tiny sized test sites (microarrays) set on a solid substrate that permit experiment to perform at the equal time. It is a computer Processor can perform millions of mathematical operations and thousands of biological reactions in few seconds. Bio-processor, Where Bio stands for any biological entity like protein, DNA etc., Processor stands for computer IC. It is an assistant between biological entity and computer IC. New type of computer logic bio security device implanting in our body that can discover us uniquely and used to track our location. It is the ending of the fields of computer science, electronics and biology. Bio-processor inserted in to the body with a hypodermic syringe. It is an accurate, fast, and tiny sized. The bio-processor space lies at the intersection between processor manufacturing, molecule biology, genomics, and signal processing. The market for Bio-processor and its applications increased in a number of core research regions.

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    Title: Capacitance Sizing of CMOS VLSI Circuit in 90nm Technology

    Authors: Sudhakar Alluri, B.Rajendra Naik, N.S.S.Reddy and M. Venkata Ramanaiah

    Abstract: The initial phases of analysis and development efforts in VLSI design were familiarized towards achieving high speed and miniaturization. At present, the growing trends in transportable computing and wireless applications demand the necessity to hunt out new technologies and style circuits that consume low power. This necessitates the necessity to orient the research towards reducing power dissipation in VLSI circuits. Recent trends within the growth and development of battery powered portable and mobile computing devices necessitate the necessity for extended battery life and thence lesser battery power consumption. The battery life is more reduced by the employment of high speed processors and huge recollections in them. Also, the magnitude of power dissipation per unit space within the integrated circuits of gift day microprocessors and recollections square measure chop-chop increasing due to the accumulated speed and flexibility. It is observed from the Table 3,Table4 and Table 5. Proposed CMOS 2 inputs and 4 outputs Decoder, We have compared capacitance sizing like ( 50fF and 10fF) in condition of power ,delay and area. We have reduced Capacitance Sizing like( 50fF and 10fF), 74% Dynamic Power Reduced and 11% delay reduce and 74% Area Reduced in Cadence 90nm Technology.

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    Title: Slotted T shaped ultra wideband microstrip patch antenna for wireless applications

    Authors: Nagabhushana H M and Vishnumurthy T D

    Abstract: Miniaturized slotted T shaped ultra wideband microstrip patch antenna is presented in this paper for wireless applications. The proposed antenna consists of a variable sized T shaped radiating patch with four rectangular slots etched on the plane of the patch as well as on the ground plane. Slots are taken on the patch for wideband characteristics. The designed antenna also uses the concept of fractal geometry for wideband characteristics and partial ground for impedance matching. The proposed antenna design is analyzed using different substrates like FR-4, Duroid and Glass. The optimal results are obtained with the FR-4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna is fabricated on FR-4 epoxy (er=4.4) substrate of thickness 1.6 mm and tangent loss d=0.01. The feeding to the antenna is by 50 O microstrip line feeding. The antenna satisfies the ultra wideband characteristics and can be useful in many wireless applications. The slotted T shape is obtained from the basic rectangular patch antenna of size 17 x 15 x 1.6 mm3. The slotted antenna has been simulated using HFSS v.15 Software, fabricated on FR-4 substrate and the parameters like return loss, VSWR, gain and radiation pattern are measured using network analyzer and anechoic antenna measuring unit. The measured and simulated results are very much similar in all responses. The simulation results show that the antenna resonates at 4.35 GHz, ranging from 2.75 GHz to 10.65 GHz and hence suitable for wideband applications. Many wireless devices such as 3.6/4.9/5/5.9 GHz WiFi, 3.41/3.49 LTE, 3.5/5.5 GHZ WiMAX, 4.2-4.4 GHz Radio Altimeter, 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN, 7.05-7.075 GHz Satellite Radio Uplink, 5.15-5.35 GHz HiperLAN, 3.7-4.2 GHz C-Band, 8.5-10.68 GHz X-Band and 3.3/3.4 GHz proposed 5G applications can use this proposed antenna. The radiation patterns and return loss are omnidirectional with moderate gain. The size reduction of the antenna is by etching of slots on the patch and partial ground concept. The overall antenna size is reduced around 41.33%. The simulation and measured results are closely related to each other

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    Title: SRR Loaded patch Antenna for X-band Applications

    Authors: K.Yogaprasad and V R Anitha

    Abstract: In this paper, A microstrip feed patch antenna loaded with split ring resonator (SRR) for X-band application and patch shape used in this design is an octagonal ring. The FR-4 material used in this design, thickness of 1.6mm and size of an antenna is 24.8mm x29 mm x1.6mm. The generalized parameters of antenna: reflection coefficient, VSWR, radiation patterns and the gain was discussed. The proposed antenna resonates at two frequencies 9.3GHz, 10.85GHz and their S11, VSWR values are -25.94dB, 1.12 at 9.3GHz; -20.6dB, 1.21 at 10.85GHz. The good radiations patterns are observed at all resonant frequencies and fine to use for wireless applications

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    Title: Analysis of Grid Based Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Authors: Smriti Sachan, Shilpa Choudhary, Mudita Vats and Arpana Mishra

    Abstract: In this 21st century Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are one of the leading trends due its various applications in the field of health, safety, military, police equipments, detector devices and disaster management etc. As there is scarcity of battery resources so certain energy efficient algorithms are designed to attain the desired energy level. The cluster based techniques are one of them which includes cluster based and grid based approaches. In cluster-based technique nodes are combined together to form a cluster whereas the grid based techniques split the entire space into the grid cells. This paper highlights and discusses the planning challenges for cluster-based schemes, the necessary cluster formation parameters, and classification of grid based approaches according to hierarchal network planning. Moreover, existing grid-based techniques are evaluated by considering bound parameters to assist users in choosing applicable technique and a close outline of those protocols is conferred with their merits, demerits and their limitations

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    Title: Review in Cloud Computing: Data Security

    Authors: Mandeep Kaur and Er. Usvir Kaur

    Abstract: Cloud Computing is an archetype based on network and computer applications. Cloud computing is a model that authorize access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources for cloud users in an on-demand or pay-per-use, style. Cloud computing offers several benefits to users and organizations, in terms of capital expenditure and savings in operational expenditure. Despite the existence of such benefits there are some obstacles that place restrictions on the usage of cloud computing. Data security is a major issue that always considered. This paper will focus on data security challenges that are faced by users.

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    Title: An Application of Tarig Transform in Cryptography

    Authors: P.S. Shwethaa and P. Senthil Kumar

    Abstract: Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. It is the study of secret messages. Cryptography plays an important role when we deal with network security. Not only writing the message in a secret form but it is the intention of keeping the data secret. There were several algorithms to achieve cryptography. This paper aims to encrypt and decrypt a message by using an integral transform - Tarig transform and Congruence modulo operator.

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    Title: Performance Analysis in Smart Antenna for Ad-Hoc Networking: A Review

    Authors: Alisha and Er. Saurabh Charaya

    Abstract: No matter what quantity we tend to state the glory of wireless communications we simply cannot agree that these sorts of communications can deliver a far higher potency as well as high data rate This Paper explores all the attributes which tends be one of those efforts. Many necessary aspects of this advanced system were mentioned during this paper like sorts and criteria of smart antenna more explain the arrival of the system. In this paper we will examine Smart antenna Performance on MAC layer and Beam forming. This paper provides a legitimate plan regarding smart antenna and it is capable of causing interest of further research about the respective matter.

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    Title: Designing and Analysing the effects of communication delay or noise on flight control system: A Review

    Authors: Viney and Er. Divya

    Abstract: The main work of this research is structuring and analysis of inward and outward effect of communication delay on flight control system. If delay comes in communication then it will be minimized. By analysing the factors like dropped packets, time delay etc. in wireless/remote communication, cause of communication delay on flight control system will be reduced. Designing a model based on communication time delay. By analysing the whole model, communication delay time will be reduced. No. of incoming signals will be arranged in proper queues. Average Wait time will be reduced. No. of dropped packets will be reduced so that communication delay will easily reduced.

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    Title: Literature Survey on Digital Forensic by Using Image Mining

    Authors: CH. Kodanda Ramu and Dr. T. Sita Mahalakshm

    Abstract: The mining of images is related to the development of mining techniques in the field of digital forensic science (DF). Image mining always works in the extraction of hidden data and additional information that is not clearly characterized in the images. Innovations in digital technology have new challenges today in the field of digital forensic imaging. In this field, some traditional approaches and frameworks are proposed to test the integrity and authenticity of digital images. Recovery-based tools are proposed to recognize unauthorized modified copies of the image. The authorization of a digital image can be tested by analyzing its acquisition. In the mining of images, the mining process depends on several techniques such as image management, information preparation, robotics and machine learning. The first imperative job of mining is to obtain highly vital elements of the hidden images. The mining of images contains diverse types of uses in diverse segments, like the investigation of the space, the remote detection, the finding of medicines, etc. Image mining can be a class of research systems that analyze a large-scale measurement of image learning. This document presents a review of several image mining procedures.

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    Title: A Comparative Study on Brain Tumor Segmentation

    Authors: C.Jaspin Jeba Sheela and G.Suganthi

    Abstract: Human brain tumor segmentation systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the wastage of time for accurate diagnosis. Brain tumor segmentation is one of the most challenging and time consuming tasks in medical image processing. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a medical technique, mainly used by the radiologist for visualization of internal structure of the human body without any surgery. MRI provides plentiful information about the human soft tissue, which helps in the diagnosis of brain tumor. Accurate segmentation of MRI image is important for the diagnosis of brain tumor by computer aided clinical tool. After appropriate segmentation of brain MR images, tumor is classified into malignant and benign, which is a difficult task due to complexity and variation in tumor tissue characteristics like its shape, size, gray level intensities and location. Taking into account the aforesaid challenges, this research is focused towards highlighting the merits and demerits of earlier proposed classification techniques discussed in the contemporary literature. Besides summarizing the literature, segmentation analysis brings forth a comparative study on seven recent papers depending on the standard analytic measures.

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    Title: Current Mode Threshold Logic Design

    Authors: Deepanshu Vijay, Rita Mahajan and Deepak Bagai

    Abstract: Current mode threshold logic is a popular CMOS based approach to implement logic functions. This paper presents the implementation of logic function using all current mode threshold logic based circuit. It shows logic function can be implemented using CMOS based current mode logic with less transistors. In this paper we are using all current mode circuits consist of two parts: the differential part and the sensor part. The number of transistors in the sensor part is constant and does not depend on the implemented function. The result shows that many functions can be implemented using these predefine circuit and hardware requirement is reduced compared to traditional CMOS based design.

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    Title: Simplified Roaming Pacts among Operators vis-?-vis Improved Subscriber Identity Privacy in Global Mobility Network

    Authors: Hiten Choudhury

    Abstract: In a Global Mobility Network, every subscriber is identified by a unique identity. This identity is used for authentication, authorization and billing. Before extending any service to a subscriber, s/he has to be authenticated. Since authentication requires identity presentation, it precedes all other forms of security like confidentiality, integrity protection, etc. Thus, the subscriber has to present his/her identity through an insecure channel in plain text, before any service is extended to him/her. Ensuring identity privacy to the subscriber is therefore a challenging security issue in mobile networks. Numerous research works have been carried out to strengthen the subscriber's identity privacy in mobile networks. Early researches in this area were focused on protecting the subscriber?s identity from an eavesdropper over the radio link between the user equipment and the visited network. Recent research however has gone a step ahead, by making an attempt to enhance the subscriber?s privacy by protecting the subscribers' identity from even the visited network that may practically be forged or compromised. In this paper, a positive impact of this new development, in the form of simplified roaming pacts among the mobile operators, is highlighted.

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    Title: Good Nearest Neighbour for Minimizing the Duplication of RREQs in MANET

    Authors: P. Calduwel Newton, M. Jayakkumar and C. Prasanna Ranjith

    Abstract: Human race has become progressively reliant on smart phones and other hand-held devices those are portable. One of the greatest tension that lodge the attentions of such users is the deficit of battery back-up. When the applications are being updated with current trends and heeding to the requirements of mundane life, the amount of data and energy occupied does increase as well. This has become the prime problem confronted by the researchers who study on routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). This paper aims to propose an energy efficient routing algorithm ? Good Nearest Neighbour for Minimizing the Duplication of Route Requests (RREQs) in MANET (GNN-MIDURR).

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    Title: Multidimensional View of Python Packages

    Authors: G. Kavitha and D. Sowmyadevi

    Abstract: Python is a powerful dynamic programming language which is used in wide variety of application development. It has built-in and third party packages to speed up the process of programs implementation. Python implementation is under open source licenses that make it freely usable and distributable. That is why Python is used to create in thousands of real-world business applications like, Product developments, websites creations and web app development, creating models in Machine learning and useful for data analyses. This paper is mainly focused on, why to learn python language and also discussed about Python?s basics and its features. There are plenty of packages available to deal with data analysis process. Here, represented a few important packages, which are used to create and analyze the data for scientific computing.

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    Title: Review on Significance of Text Pre-processing Techniques in Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    Authors: Kulpreet Kaur and Shruti Aggarwal

    Abstract: Data Mining is a non-trivial process of analyzing large databases or data warehouses to extract knowledge or useful patterns. Sentiment analysis is an area in data mining that uses ?Web? as a data source. It is also known as Opinion Mining and is a very important and widely studied topic in Web content mining and Natural language processing. It is a process of extracting sentiments or emotions from a database of reviews or comments. It is generally seen as a classification task that groups the reviews according to their polarity but it can actually accomplish tasks such as summarization, spam content detection, product recommendation, buying behaviour recognition and objectionable content detection on social media also. Mostly data collected from web is in unstructured and noisy form so pre-processing of web content is a crucial step and increases the accuracy of classifier in sentiment analysis but it is often ignored. Keeping in mind the importance of this step, major pre-processing techniques are reviewed and various combinations are analyzed for their advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents an overview of sentiment analysis and different pre-processing techniques used in it.

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    Title: Design of Microstrip Antenna Array for RADAR Application : A Review

    Authors: Kanchan Wagh and S.S.Shriramwar

    Abstract: Phased Array Radar technology has seen great improvement since their inception in 50s. The development of microstrip antenna for phased array radar increasingly great importance. This paper reviews the research and development in this subject from inception till today. Conventional antennas antennas are large in size and they need to get installed properly because of their large size. Eli Brookner was the pioneer in the field of Phased Array Radar. He was working in the field of radar since the 50s. The research in the field of radar was greatly increased from World War II. Beam steering switching antennas were widely used and preferred. By controlling amplitude excitation of the elements in an antenna array, an efficient null broadening was achieved. People were preferring a slot into the design for higher bandwidth requirements. The slot microstrip antenna was used as a folded slot dipole. Defective Ground Structure had been extensively used by many authors for the improvement of bandwidth. DGS is an etched periodic or non periodic structure in ground plane. A new concept has been evolved named as a Complimentary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR). The two concentric open circular rings are etched on ground plane. Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) are the resonant structures having either stop band or pass band performance, due to which they are widely used as radomes and electromagnetic absorbers. Microstrip antennas are commonly used with an upper dielectric protective layer called as radome which provides mechanical protection and weatherproof operation. Electric parameter of antenna get affected if the dielectric constant of radome is not unity.

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    Title: Automated Blood Bank System using Raspberry Pi

    Authors: Ramana Boina Kalyani and Dhanika Srinivas

    Abstract: ?Raspberry pi based blood bank system? proposed to bring blood donors to the one place. The aim of this system is to fulfill every blood request by using android application and raspberry pi. In the proposed system, data about the donors will be collected by using android application and raspberry pi by installing systems at places such as hospitals, blood banks etc. These data will be stored in the database. User/Patients needs to access application and needs to enter his requirements about the blood in the application the requirements are matched with the database and message will be to that particular blood donor through GSM modem.

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    Title: Low Power VCO Design for Wireless Communication Based Applications

    Authors: Alpana Amit Deshmukh, Radheshyam Gamad and Deepak Kumar Mishra

    Abstract: Wireless communication-based system requires low power, current, voltage and wide frequency range for system design. The Paper presents a design in the field of wireless communication systems. It presents 3 stage voltage controlled ring oscillator design on LT Spice tool and also reports transient, DC analysis of the system. As well as it shows fast fourier transform response of input control voltage and its transient analysis response with change in time period and frequency. The proposed design is implemented in 45nm technology and achieved low voltage and current range in table 1. VCO power and current estimation done based on mathematical modeling and compared with simulation results. Authors have also achieved low power dissipation of 37.6 ?w, the Phase noise of VCO design from -90 dB to 40 dB with frequency 1 MHz offset frequency and shows DC sweep analysis from 0 to 4.8 volts voltage range for 0 to 0.6 seconds time period.

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    Title: High Speed Multi-Rate Decimation Filter with Optimized Area for Efficient FPGA design

    Authors: Nasir N. Hurrah and Shabir A. Parah

    Abstract: In this paper aspeed and area efficient decimation filter is proposed for high performance FPGA implementation for wideband converters. The design is optimized for area and suited particularly for filters with high decimation factor. The filter offers a decimation factor of 128 having input from Sigma-Delta Modulator. For achieving high speed operation of Decimation filter We have employed efficient design procedures in the form of pipeline architectures, polyphase decomposition, retiming structures, Canonical Sign Digit encoders and resource sharing. These techniques have been used for designing the optimally selected multi stage filers like Non-Recursive Comb filters, Cascaded Integrated Comb Filters and Half Band Filters. Each filtering stage is placed before or after another filter while keeping all the speed, area and power consideration up to an efficient level. The filter offers reduced word-lengths effects thereby providing increased speed and reduced power consumption. From the results it is shown that a better power conservation is achieved along with minimum consumed area while achieving high speed performance in the form of less design complexity. Experimental results show that the proposed filter design can prove one of the best options for future design consideration of decimation filter for Sigma Delta Analog to Digital converters.

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