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    Volume-5 Issue-2

    Title: Survey of Massive MIMO Detectors

    Authors: S.Nivetha and D.Sellathambi

    Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output is a novel digital technique; it can be proposed the different types of detectors in the MIMO. In this paper it can be perform the bit error rate and the spectral efficiency for the performance analysis of the massive MIMO systems. Maximum Likelihood (ML), Near Maximum Likelihood (N-ML), Log-Likelihood Ratio (LLR), Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation (OSIC), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), Zero Forcing (ZF), detectorsis proposed and investigated the theoretical performance. It can be provides the better error performance in massive MIMO under the realistic conditions.

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    Title: Performance Comparison of Channel Estimation in MIMO-OFDM System using Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform

    Authors: V. Adinarayana, Prem Bharat Kumar.N, K.Murali Krishana and P.Rajesh Kumar

    Abstract: In this paper Discrete Wavelet Transform based channel estimation method is proposed. The conventional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based approach will cause energy leakage in multipath channel with non-sampled-spaced time delays. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based channel estimator can mitigate the aliasing error and high frequency distortion of Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based channel estimator, when the multi path fading channels have non-sample spaced path delays. Wavelet based systems provide better spectral efficiency because of no cyclic prefix requirement, with narrow side lobes and also exhibit improved BER performance. In this work an investigation on the performance of discrete wavelet transform based multicarrier system using zero forcing equalization in time domain is presented. The proposed estimator outperforms the conventional DFT and DCT based channel estimators in terms of bit error rate (BER) and mean square error (MSE).

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    Title: Medical Image Enhancement based on Texture Features

    Authors: Neeraj Battish, Gourav, Harsmeet Singh and Dapinder Kaur

    Abstract: With the improvement in advancement, restorative field similarly uses particular sorts of machine to acquire the photos for assurance. These sensors secure information and make it as pictures. Sooner or later these photos are impacted by some bowing like barrel and pincushion. This is in light of the fact that hypotheses sensors have an engraving focus on either centre or edge. As it spotlights on one point so it can't be cleared however can be helped resulting to acquiring tests. Different strategies have been used to right this kind of bending. The past work which we took under believed was to accumulate information by evacuating some arrangement highlights using that component to portray the photo which will give the correct information at some sort of point. Consequently, there is still need to improve the results. Thusly, in this work Feature extraction handle in updated by using at least two components and isolating instrument before highlight extraction. By then accumulate information by portraying them using neural classifier. The execution of this proposed plan is figured as far as precision which is roughly 97%. It implies Distortion of both sorts is exceedingly adjusted.

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    Title: Competent Incremental Density Based Algorithm Using Boltzmann Learning Technique

    Authors: Lovepreet Singh and Anshu Sharma

    Abstract: The clustering is the technique in which similar and dissimilar type of data is clustered in different clusters for batter analysis of the input data. The algorithm of DBSCAN is applied in which EPS is calculated which will be the central point and from the central point. Euclidean distance is calculated to define similarity and dissimilarity of the input data. In the existing algorithm EPS is calculated dynamically but Euclidian distance statically which reduce accuracy of clustering. In this work, boltzmann algorithm is been applied which calculate Euclidian distance dynamically and simulation study is conducted which shows that proposed improvement increase accuracy of clustering and reduce execution time.

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    Title: Emergency Message Dissemination in Urban Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks Using Different Broadcast Strategies

    Authors: M. Mathumitha, Dr. C. Mahalakshmi and Dr. M.Ramaswamy

    Abstract: This paper evolves an emergency message dissemination using an Urban Multi-hop Broadcast Protocol (UMBP) in order to reduce message redundancy and message transmission delay. It includes a novel forwarding node selection scheme that utilizes iterative partition, mini-slot, and black-burst to quickly select remote neighbouring nodes, and a single forwarding node is successfully chosen by the asynchronous contention among them. Then, bidirectional broadcast, multi-directional broadcast, and directional broadcast are designed according to the positions of the emergency message senders. The information during the accident or emergency situation can be computed by road-side nodes and then broadcasted to road users for optimized multi-hop packet transmission in the communication network. In addition, the weather report is continuously sent to the vehicle via road side unit. It includes the Network Simulator-2 (NS-2) based simulation results to illustrate the merits of the developed methodology and reveal the suitability of UMBP based message transmissions for real-time practical applications.

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    Title: Dc Noise Margin Analysis of Low Power 8t SRAM Cell Using 90nm CMOS Technology


    Abstract: The decrement of the channel length due to scaling increases the leakage current resulting in a major contribution to the static power dissipation. And for stability of the SRAM cell high-quality noise margin is required. So, noise margin is the most important parameter for memory design. The higher noise margin of the cell confirms the high-speed of SRAM cell. In this work, a new SRAM cell with eight transistors is being proposed to reduce the static as well as dynamic power hence total power dissipation. When compared to the conventional 6T SRAM, the proposed SRAM shows a significant reduction in the gate leakage current, static, dynamic and total power dissipation while produce higher stability. Proposed design is simulated in LT spice IV tool using 90nm CMOS technology.

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    Title: Literature Survey on Various Finger Print Technique for Authentication

    Authors: K. Abiram

    Abstract: In this article review several research papers based on different type of fingerprint recognitions, compare to from biometric scanner for generate data base this is helpful security purpose.

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    Title: Security Requirements in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Authors: R.Vennila

    Abstract: This paper presents a security issues in Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Many researchers have done work on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) where VANETs routing protocol has been taken as a new protocol. In VANET cars are allowed to talk to each other where a wireless device sends information to nearby vehicles. In this research we will discuss the security issues such as confidentiality, authenticity, availability and non-repudiation aimed to secure communication between V2V and V2I. Tabulated statistics on the relationship between security services versus the technique to encounter the possible attacks is shown. Five security services with security attacks and techniques have been presented. The new technique for VANETs can be build taking this paper as reference.

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    Title: Node Management to Detect Selfish Node

    Authors: R.Hema priya and P.Bright Prabahar

    Abstract: In Wireless Network communication, every node transmits data packets to further nodes. In ideal situation all the nodes forward packets to other nodes according to their requirements. Presence of selfish nodes is a very big problem in Wireless Networks. A selfish node doesn't forward packets and utilize to its own profit but it is hesitating using personal resources for others. If such activities occur within most of the nodes in the network, the network is interrupted. Selfish behavior detection is an essential condition in wireless networks. In this project we have described an efficient method for detection and punishment of a selfish node. Under the distributed node-selfishness management, a path selection criterion is designed to select the most reliable and shortest path in terms of RNs?. Degree of intrinsic selfishness nodes affected by their available resources, and the optimal reasons are determined by the source to stimulate forwarding multiservice of the RNs in the selected path.

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    Title: Communication in Stratosphere with the Help of Latest Technology

    Authors: Aditi Jain

    Abstract: Communication is the process of transferring the information from one place to another. Satellite communication plays a big role in signal transmission but the high installation and the maintenance costs makes scientists to move forward in this area. Therefore, the main purpose of introducing the latest technologies like airships, stratellite, etc. in the stratosphere is to provide more reliable and efficient communication. This paper aims to illustrate the future of technology, application and its challenges in the real world.

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    Title: Gesture Based Robotic Vehicle Using Sixth Sense Technology

    Authors: K.Dhinesh, G.Mahalakshmi, S.Sheeba and K.Mohanapriya

    Abstract: The way of interaction between human and robot has been developing using various technologies. Controlling the robotic vehicle using gestures is a predominant way of enhancing the interaction. In this interactive technique the user need not have any physical contact with the device. It helps to bridge the technological gap in the interactive system. In this project the robotic vehicle is directed by identifying the real time gesture commands from the user which is implemented using image processing algorithms and embedded techniques.

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    Title: Industrial Control System using Li-Fi and IoT

    Authors: Sriram H. Iyer, Amruta Ghanekar, Akshay Sawant and Madhuri Virkar

    Abstract: Monitoring the parameters that affects processes is of prime concern in any industry. For monitoring those parameters the data is needed to transfer from the plant to a control station. But the data transfer is very crucial in industries, because of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and noise that are inherently present in the plant. To prevent the data from being contaminated by the noise we use light as a transmission medium. This type of visible light communication (VLC) is widely known as Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) in which LED is used for data transmission by switching it ON (1) and OFF (0) posthastly in microseconds which cannot be seen by naked eyes. Remote monitoring is enabled by the recent trend of Internet of Things (IoT), which provides facility to monitor the data through handheld devices like mobile, laptop, etc. IoT also allows reliable, fast and secure access to data. The processes in a plant are controlled depending on the values of the parameters which are being monitored. Processes are controlled by means of some controlling mechanisms. But these mechanisms require control signals which are sent by the control station. The requirement of personnel to be present at the control station all the time for this purpose can be eliminated by using IoT. Industrial parameters monitoring as well as transmission of control signals from places far away from the control station is achieved by using the IoT. Monitoring and controlling go hand in hand.

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    Title: A Survey on Free Space Optical Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Strength Models


    Abstract: In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received light signal, impairing link performance. Free Space Optical (FSO) communications is the only viable solution for creating a three-dimensional global communications grid of interconnected ground and airborne nodes. The huge amount of data exchange between satellites and ground stations demands enormous capacity that cannot be provided by strictly regulated, scarce resources of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum. Free Space Optical (FSO) communications, on the other hand, has the potential of providing virtually unlimited bandwidth.Various factors are affecting the performance of the communication channel in free space optical communication system. Developing model to get an accurate prediction of turbulence strength (Cn2) become significant to understand the behavior of channel in different seasons. This dissertation deals with the survey of channel model such as Pamela, Hufnagel valley, Beam wandering, Polynomial regression, log-normal models

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    Title: Survey on Getting a Better Energy Efficient in Cognitive Radio Network

    Authors: R.Prabha

    Abstract: Energy efficiency in cognitive radio networks has received lots of research attention lately due to the impact of low energy efficiency on the design, implementation and performance of the network. In this research, cognitive radio network as regards to energy efficiency has been analyzed. The importance of energy efficiency in cognitive radio networks and sources of unnecessary energy consumption in the networks are also investigated. Ways in which higher energy efficiency in cognitive radio networks can be achieved is also addressed by employing suitable protocols, mechanisms and algorithm analyzed in the article. These measures can bring about low energy consumption amongst components in the network, improved sensing reliability and better energy efficiency which in turn enhances the overall network throughput.

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    Title: Cell Structure and Power Analysis Using Dynamic Ram

    Authors: VANDHANA.M.S and ANUSHA.P.M

    Abstract: The scaling of channels attains the current leakage at transistors, which shows the power lenience. In order to decrease the power and also to increase the speed of the structure, the size of the transistor is assumed to be low. Then it can also be changed. In this paper the dynamic RAM has been implemented for reducing the power. By analyzing the structure with 6T, N-CRAM in its features, a decreased power is reached, which is compared with the system in its active mode. The performance are analyzed in 1.8v which reduces the 90 percent of power than 6T, and 18 percent of power is reduced than in 8T cell, and 30 percent of current leakage is reduced in 6T cell. Thus it is compared to the existing SRAM, that leads to the cell with less power and storage of data is fine without distortion. So the constancy of the structure is increased when related to other cell. The result waveform gives that the cell contains improved stability and reduction in leakage using the cadence virtuoso of 180 nm technology.

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    Title: Realization of Online Video Streaming in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network with prolonging Battery life


    Abstract: Various applications like wildlife monitoring, video surveillance, traffic monitoring, and license plate recognition are done using either image or video processing by a camera unit. The capabilities of wireless sensor networks are restricted because of inadequate power demand. In Wireless multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN), each node has camera module and communication is done via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or radio frequency module supported by battery power source. In the proposed work, two working modules are being designed (i) Detection of human in unmannered area using WMSN (ii) An algorithm to detect battery power level. In detection of human the Passive Infrared sensor (PIR) sensor is used for human movement discovery and a controller unit has a camera module along with driver circuit per MxN grid. The object detection done by PIR sensor and tracking is done by rotatable camera. The battery power model algorithm is used to detect and alarm the information about the nodes with low battery power to a monitoring node. Thus, node failure due to battery drain can be prevented. These two modules help the user to have knowledge about the entire multimedia network and can make any alternate arrangement if any node demands for power. The hardware setup is implemented and the results are shown using PC.

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    Title: Review Paper on WDM Technology

    Authors: Amit Kataria and Subhash Panchal

    Abstract: In this paper optical technology such as Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) has been studiedwhich is used to provide high-capacity point-to-point light paths consisting of a wavelength channel carried over a succession of fibers applications DWDM system and the need of this system is discussed along with the operation of each component. As well as studied about optical ROADM scheme for routing of an individual sub channel within an all-optical OFDM superchannel. The different functions required of optical node were demonstrated using interferometric technique with the extraction, drop, and addition of individual subchannels in a ten subchannels optically aggregated signal and Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables, such that the number of channels is fewer than in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) but more than in standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The objective of this paper is to summarize the basic optical network\king approaches, including wavelength allocation scheme in optical networks.

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    Title: Review Paper on Fractal Patch Antenna

    Authors: Kavita Sharma and Ankush

    Abstract: This paper gives a literature survey about the microstrip patch antenna, the use of fractal geometry and the basics of defective ground structure. The need for miniaturized antenna is ever growing in view of the advancements in wireless communication technology. The conventional micro strip antennas take any shape like square, rectangular, triangle and so on. They provide normally single resonance frequency with high quality factor because of narrow bandwidth. However, the fractal antennas are able to provide either multi-band resonances or broad bandwidth because of the self-similar and space-filling properties. The applications of fractal geometry on the patch and the application of DGS (Defected ground structure) on the ground have also been studied. In order to reduce the multipath fading and enhance data transmission the use of multiple input multiple output [MIMO] technology at transmitter and receiver terminals has attracted the attention of industries recently. For short distance communication MIMO is combined with ultra-wideband [UWB] technology. The self-similar property of fractal can be explained with the help of an example of a fern leaf. If we observe a fern leaf carefully then we will notice that each small leaf which is a part of the big leaf has the same shape as that of the whole fern leaf. Hence we can say that the fern leaf is self-similar [2]. The iteration of one or more affine transformations can generate fractals reproducing real shapes, such as clouds, mountains etc.

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    Title: Evaluation of Process to Bay Level Networking Delay in IEC 61850 Substation Communication System

    Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Bawa and Dr. Rajneesh Randhawa

    Abstract: The modern and high speed Peer-to-Peer IEC 61850 has opened the chance for planning and developing the sampled values that are supported information exchange among IEDs. Over the method bus network, it?s important to comprehend the transmission responsibility and real time performance of SVs and GOOSE messages for all-digital IEC 61850 station automation systems (SASs) protection applications to deal with the responsibility, availableness, and settled delay performance we want to propose a process-to-bay level network model for varied network topologies within the OPNET creator platform. In this paper we check varied topologies in IEC 61850 and packet delay using mesh and star topologies for LAN and WLAN and conjointly compare the performance of projected theme with existing methodology for numerous parameters for wireless local area network and LAN by varying packet size.

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    Title: Implementation of Robust technique of Adaptive Channel Estimation at High Data Rate for High & Minimal Mobility Systems

    Authors: S.Prudhvi and R.Uma Maheswari

    Abstract: High mobility systems face difficulties in estimating channel efficiently for data transfer in order to attain efficient channel estimation at higher data rates, systems like MIMO/OFDM are incorporated in to it due to its employment of smart selection and combining techniques in the receiver end to improve the signal quality in order to contribute towards the robust system the priority is given to minimize the interference occurred among the symbols in the channels and compress the data stream for high speed digital data transmission. Estimating the channel as accurately as possible is essential. This paper constitutes for different channel estimation technique is implemented with OFDM and MIMO for high mobility. If any symbol occurs with error then, the PIC-DSC is involved in removing the unnecessary interference produced in the channel. the possibility of the project is more related to high mobility systems in order to attain much more stability at any system?For identify the error of the signal without rectifying the condition before that from the channels frequency, it uses the MIMO of the clusters formation will initialize the energy level to all sub nodes then send the data via spectrum channels with energy measuring. The Performance and result analysis is done using MATLAB simulation.

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