Title: Performance Evaluation of Different Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network Using Different Network Parameters For Large Terrain Area
Authors: Sandeep Kumar and Trilok Chand Shrimal
Abstract: In the recent past, wireless sensor networks have been introduced to use in many applications. To design the networks, the factors needed to be considered are the coverage area, mobility, power consumption, communication capabilities etc. The challenging goal of our project is to create a simulator to support the wireless sensor network simulation. The network simulator (NS-2) which supports both wire and wireless networks is implemented to be used with the wireless sensor network. The main focus of this paper is to discuss and evaluate the performance of different parameters in different scenarios and large terrain area 2000 m. x 2000 m. in wireless sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR), Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) for monitoring of critical conditions with the help of parameter (Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF), Normalized Routing Load (NRL), Average Throughput)
Title: Performance Improvement of Frequency hopped spread spectrum Using coherent & noncoherent M-ary frequency shift keying
Authors: Neha Seth and Vijay Mohan Shrimal
Abstract: Here we study the application of Frequency Hopped spread spectrum systems using M-FSK technique. In this paper we study the FHSS technique using coherent & non coherent FSK & calculate Bit error rate. This paper give us a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of FHSS working with coherent M-ary FSK demodulation. Using AWGN & Rayleigh channel we calculate bit error performance of a frequency hopping spread spectrum model. There are many investigations for the frequency hop spread spectrum systems using different modulation schemes to reduce the bit error ratios. So much work has been done on computing BER of FHSSs systems with error control coding by the use of industry standard convolution coding.
Title: New Algorithms for Multiplication of Two 3D Sparse Matrices Using 1D Arrays and Linked Lists
Authors: Abhishek Jain and Sandeep Kumar
Abstract: A basic algorithm of 3D sparse matrix multiplication (BASMM) is presented using one dimensional (1D) arrays which is used further for multiplying two 3D sparse matrices using Linked Lists. In this algorithm, a general concept is derived in which we enter non- zeros elements in 1st and 2nd sparse matrices (3D) but store that values in 1D arrays and linked lists so that zeros could be removed or ignored to store in memory. The positions of that non-zero value are also stored in memory like row and column position. In this way space complexity is decreased. There are two ways to store the sparse matrix in memory. First is row major order and another is column major order. But, in this algorithm, row major order is used. Now multiplying those two matrices with the help of BASMM algorithm, time complexity also decreased. For the implementation of this, simple c programming and concepts of data structures are used which are very easy to understand for everyone.
Title: Robust Watermark Investigation On Digital Multimedia Images Using DCT, Threshold And Correlation Based Scheme
Authors: Roma Rewani and Aditya Kumar Singh Pundir
Abstract: Now today era is completely works on the internet, so authenticity is required to protect the content of the data because owner never wants to degrade the quality of his data. Information hiding via digital watermarks for the multimedia data is the compatible way to provide the protection of data . Watermarks are imperceptible and it is predefined pattern inserting into multimedia data to protect or authenticity. The watermark indicates that data is containing a copyright or not. Many digital watermarking algorithms have been proposed ing spatial and transform domain . In spatial domain relatively threshold based correlation is used, which have least complexity, low bit capacity and not enough resistant to loss image compression or any other image processing operation. A simple noise in an image can eliminated the watermark, so that in this approach data security will get affected. On the other hand frequency domain based technique can embedded more bits of watermark. DCT discrete cosine transformation and DWT discrete wavelet transformation are most popular. Frequency domain technique is more robust against any attacks. Robustness of any watermark can be evaluated by applying different attacks. Most popular are rotation, cropping resize, flipping attacks etc. Main focus of the thesis is to investigate the strength and limitation of the current watermarking scheme. To design a new scheme and minimize the limitation of the current watermarking scheme. At present the researchers are trying to solve this problem and building a robust watermark. Finally, the performance of the digital watermarking schemes is evaluated as tradeoffs between number of bits embedded on it, robustness against attacks and embedding induced distortions. Conclusion in today scenarios of copyright protection, tamper detection and provides the authentication by applying watermarks on a digital media (e.g. video, audio and images) is the most appropriate techniques.
Title: DESIGN OF MULTIBAND FRACTAL SQUARE RING MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
Authors: Kiran Wadhwani, Pieush Vyas and Sanjeev Yadav
Abstract: This paper introduces the design of multiband microstrip antenna using fractal square ring structure for Bluetooth, Zigbee and WLAN/Wimax application. The design of this antenna is simulated in IE3D software. Simulated results show that 18.9% and 5.4% impedance bandwidth is achieved with respect to the center frequency 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz.